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Biotechnology Careers

Biotechnology uses the DNA of living organisms to bioengineer new products artificially. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the related fields of biomedicine, pharmacology, and genetic engineering. Modern biotech methods are used to manufacture existing medicines more easily, in order to treat human diseases. Further, biotechnology has enabled emerging techniques like gene therapy.

Agricultural biotechnology, and crop science in general, includes plant cross-breeding techniques, trait selection, and genetic engineering in some cases. Biotech crops can make farming more profitable by increasing crop quality and may in some cases increasing crop yields. Where biotech crops are grown in proximity to related plants, the potential for the two plant species to exchange traits via pollen must be evaluated. In fact, according to the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), biotechnology crops as a percentage of total crop plantings in the USA were about 88 percent for corn, 94 percent for cotton, and 93 percent for soybeans. Herbicide-tolerant crops are particularly compatible with reduced-tillage commercial agriculture systems that help preserve topsoil from erosion.

Researchers may use biotechnology processes to discover things that may not be possible by more conventional means. This includes introducing new or improved traits in plants, animals, and microorganisms and creating new biotechnology-based products such as more effective diagnostic tests, improved farm animal vaccines, and better antibiotics. The USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) conducts research on the economic aspects of the use of genetically engineered plants, including the rate of adoption of biotechnology by farmers.

What is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), and how does DNA work?

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) consists of two biopolymer strands, coiled around each other to form a double helix. These two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of several monomer proteins. Each nucleotide is made up of nitrogen-containing cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A), or thymine (T), one deoxyribose sugar molecule, and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent hydrogen bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone, according to base-pairing rules. The total amount of DNA in all living organisms is estimated to weigh 50 billion tons (Wikipedia). That's a lot of DNA, especially as protein molecules are microscopic and thus invisible to the naked eye.

The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, unless there is a mutation, and both pieces of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. When a cell divides, it RNA transcription must replicate the DNA in its genome so that the two daughter cells are afforded an exact copy of the genetic information stored in the parent cells. The double-stranded structure of DNA provides a simple mechanism for DNA replication. The two strands are separated and then each strand's complementary DNA sequence is recreated by an enzyme called DNA polymerase. A large part of DNA (almost 99% in humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences, but rather perform little-known functions.


Mechanical Engineering
Cutting Forces
Mechanics of Machining
Velocity Analysis
Degrees of Freedom
Fatigue
Mohr's Cirlce
Von-Mises Stress
Vibration
design and manufacturing i
design and manufacturing ii
toy design
intro to robotics
optics
sail and yacht design
direct thermal solar


Aircraft Design, Aerospace
aerospace engineering 1
thermal energy
automatic control
aerodynamics
structural mechanics
aircraft control
astrodynamics
human factors engineering
propulsion systems
space propulsion
ionized gases
systems engineering
satellite engineering
aircraft systems engineering
bio-inspired structures


Architecture
environmental design
architectural design
glass houses
contemporary architecture
building technology
energy flow in buildings
structural design
historic structures
construction materials
structural systems
natural lighting
Analysis of Beam
Method of Joints
Method of Sections
Mohr's Cirlce
Von-Mise Stress
Theories of Failure


Materials Science
intro to materials science
materials processing
polymer engineering
solid state chemistry
materials in human experience
fracture and fatigue
welding and joining
physical metallurgy
magnetics
photonic materials
electrochemical processing
mechanics of plastics
magnets


Nuclear Engineering
Kalina Cycle
Thermal Power Plant
applied nuclear physics
engineering of nuclear systems
nuclear reactor safety
nuclear fuel
nuclear reactors
medical imaging
plasma physics
superconducting magnets
geiger counters
Automotive Engineering
Diesel Engine
Diesel vs Petrol
Manual Transmission
Differential
Slip Differential
Fuel Cell Technology
Gear Design
gas and diesel engines


Thermo-dynamics
Refrigerator
Heat Transfer
Thermodynamics 1
Thermodynamics 2
Fluid Dynamics 1
Fluid Dynamics 2
Turbulence


Turbines
Gas Turbine
Steam Turbine
Wind Turbine
Francis Turbine
Turbomachinery
Pelton Turbine
Kaplan Turbine
Centrifugal Pump
Centrifugal Pump 2
Steam Turbine


Electric Motors
DC Motor
Brushless DC Motor
Alternator
Single Phase Motor
3 Phase Motor
RMF - 1P Motor
RMF - 3P Motor


Electrical Engineering
electromagnetism 1
solid state circuits
circuits and electronics
electromagnetics
circuits
power electronics
photovoltaics - solar energy
electromagnetics
antennas and signals
electric machines
nanoelectronics
superconductivity


Computer Science
intro to algorithms
artificial intelligence
JAVA programming
Python
programming languages
computer systems 1
database systems
computer graphics
network security
computer systems security
natural language processing
machine learning
intro to C language


Civil Engineering
soil behavior
waste containment
soil mechanics
environmental chemistry
groundwater hydrology
aquatic chemistry
water quality control
atmospheric chemistry
wastewater treatment
environmental microbiology


Engineering Tests

Each of the following multiple-choice engineering tests has 10 questions to practice on. No sign up required, just straight to the test.
 

Biotech Department Rankings - Undergraduate

Microbiologists need at least a bachelor's degree in microbiology or a closely related program that offers substantial coursework in microbiology, such as biotechnology or cell biology. Most microbiology majors take core courses in microbial genetics and microbial physiology and elective classes such as environmental microbiology and virology. It is important for prospective workers in biotechnology firms to have organic chemistry laboratory experience before entering the workforce. Students also can gain valuable lab experience through internships with drug manufacturers.

Industrial technologists, by comparison, study and solve problems related to industrial production processes. They may examine microbial growth found in the pipes of a chemical factory, monitor the impact industrial waste has on the local ecosystem, or oversee the microbial activities used in biotech production to ensure product quality. Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic engineering aims to assess and manage the risks of developing genetically modified organisms (GMO), including commercial food crops and fish.

 1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) - Cambridge, MA
 2. California Institute of Technology (Caltech) - Pasadena, CA
 3. Stanford University - Stanford, CA
 4. University of California Berkeley - Berkeley, CA
 5. Cornell University - Ithaca, NY
 6. Princeton University - Princeton, NJ
 7. University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, MI
 8. Harvey Mudd College - Claremont, CA
 9. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology - Terre Haute, IN
10. United States Military Academy - West Point, NY
11. Bucknell University - Lewisburg, PA
12. Cal Poly San Luis Obispo - San Luis Obispo, CA
13. The Cooper Union - New York, NY
14. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach, FL
15. Georgia Institute of Technology - Atlanta, GA
16. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign - Champaign, IL
17. Carnegie Mellon University - Pittsburgh, PA
18. Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN
19. University of Texas Austin - Austin, TX
20. University of Wisconsin - Madison, WI

    Source: US News, Forbes, and Bloomberg

Microbiology Jobs

Microbiologists held about 23,200 jobs in 2017. The median annual wage for microbiologists was $66,850 in May 2017. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $39,480, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $128,190. Employment of microbiologists is projected to grow 8 percent from 2017 to 2026. More microbiologists will be needed to contribute to basic research and solve problems of industrial production, and develop new medicines, such as vaccines and antibiotics. In addition, pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies will need to hire experts in order to develop drugs that are produced with the aid of microorganisms.

Aside from improving health, other areas of research and development are expected to provide employment growth for microbiologists. Many companies, from food producers to chemical companies, will need microbiologists to ensure biotech product quality and production efficiency. Efforts to find more clean sources of energy will involve microbiologists, such as mycologists and industrial microbiologists, who research and develop alternative energy sources such as biofuels and biomass. In agriculture, microbiologists will be needed to help develop genetically engineered crops (GMO) that provide greater yields or require less pesticide and fertilizer.


Links below list current openings:Starting Salary
(up to)
10 Year Salary
(up to)
Aerospace Engineers$89,260$124,550
Aircraft Mechanics$39,300$71,780
Android Apps$84,350$97,900
Architects$69,760$104,970
Biotechnology$70,900$129,510
Chemists$66,040$106,310
Civil Engineers$72,120$104,420
Electrical Engineers$78,900$115,240
Environmental Engineers$72,590$106,230
Graphic Design$49,300$58,000
Industrial Engineering$70,630$100,980
Maintenance Technician$63,230$73,810
Linux/Perl/C++$79,920$95,350
Mechanical Engineers$63,230$94,690
.NET Developer$88,620$108,000
Network Analysts$65,230$91,550
Robotics $82,160$92,550
Solar Energy$81,050$104,930
Software Development$79,920$95,250
Surveying $23,640$43,140
SWIFT, iOS$85,400$110,720
Technical Writers$60,850$91,720
Urban Planners$58,940$86,880
EMPLOYERS:     Post Jobs     Search Resumes


EMPLOYERS:

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Engineering Jobs
(updated hourly)
Starting
(up to)
Aerospace Engineers$89,260
Aircraft Mechanics$39,300
Android Apps$84,350
Architects$69,760
Biotechnology$70,900
Chemists$66,040
Civil Engineers$72,120
Electrical Engineers$78,900
Environmental Engineers$72,590
Graphic Design$49,300
Industrial Engineering$70,630
Maintenance Technician$63,230
Mechanical Engineers$63,230
.NET Developer$88,620
Network Analysts$65,230
Project Management$68,100
Robotics $82,160
Solar Energy$81,050
Software Development$79,920
Surveying $23,640
SWIFT, iOS$85,400
Technical Writers$60,850
Urban Planners $58,940
 
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